•Stand-alone PV systems are designed to operate independent of the electric utility grid
•Supply DC and/or AC electrical loads
•The simplest type of stand-alone PV system is a direct-coupled system, where the DC output of a PV module or array is directly connected to a DC load
•Since there are no batteries involved
in direct load systems, stand-alone PV systems are suitable for such processes as heating and pumping water, ventilation fans, etc…Although they can only work in the day.
Stand-Alone systems may also power AC loads such as batteries. Like the AC adapter which powers your laptop